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Steven B. Denis Louis Alfin , University of Wisconsin. Lon Strauss , Marine Corps University. James N. Tallon , Lewis University. Kevin R. Broucke , University of North Texas. Samuel J. Kevin Adams , Kent State University. Durwood Ball , University of New Mexico. Army's Protection of Lincoln's Journey in February Mark C. Paul W. Westermeyer , Marine Corps University. David Ulbrich , Norwich University.

Marines as Colonial Infantry in Haiti, Allyson Gates , Florida State University. Douglas Bristol , University of Southern Mississippi. Jeremy Maxwell , University of Southern Mississippi.

William Taylor , Angelo State University. Robert Jefferson , University of New Mexico. Wartime Adaptation and Innovation in the 20th Century. Ron Milam , Texas Tech University. John Aylesworth , Texas Tech University. Derek R. Michael R. Bradley S. Keefer , Kent State University at Ashtabula. Heather M. Haley , Auburn University.

Garrett Gatzemeyer , University of Kansas. Participant's Paper Title: Bullets or Bayonets? Sebastian H. Lukasik , Air Command and Staff College. Bryon Greenwald , National Defense University. Mark Olsen , National Defense University. Ian Bennett , National Defense University. Daniel Penter , National Defense University. Gregory Miller , National Defense University. Young Scholars Panel - Conversations of War. Gregory A. Daddis , Chapman University. Cameron Carlomagno , Chapman University. Sasha Conway , Chapman University. Nicholas Guitierrez , Chapman University.

Heather Stur , University of Southern Mississippi. Robert Paul Wettemann Jr. Daniel Krebs , University of Louisville. Emma C. Bryan , University of Louisville. Anna Cecile Pepper , University of Louisville. Raymond M. Myers IV , University of Louisville. Cole Jones , Purdue University. Robin Hardy , Montana State University. Alisha Hamel , American Military University. Kip D. Dean , Chapman University. Titus L. Firmin , University of New Orleans. Jessica Dirkson , Georgia Southern University.

Gabriela Maduro , Florida State University. Charles Melson. Victoria McGowan , University of Calgary. Thomas Bruscino , Army War College. Joshua Haynes , University of Southern Mississippi. Van Knopf , Indiana University Southeast. Jeremy D. Sarah McCoy , University of Louisville. Alex Dracobly , University of Oregon. Neal , Independent Scholar. Zhaokun Liu , Carnegie Mellon University. Steven Trout , University of South Alabama.

Tim Dayton , Kansas State University. Patrick M. Gary Sheffield , University of Wolverhampton. Edward G. Lengel , White House Historical Association. Robert Stevenson , Australian War Memorial. Christopher Rein , Army University Press. Cameron Boutin , University of Kentucky. James J. Gigantino II , University of Arkansas. Wartime Violence and Physical Landscapes. Raymond Sun , Washington State University. Benjamin Nestor , Marquette University.

Thomas Tormey , Trinity College, Dublin. Room: Clements. Gil Barndollar , Independent Scholar. Robyn L. Ryan D. Wadle , Air Command and Staff College. Justin C. Toby G. Bates , Mississippi State University - Meridian. Jeffery S. Prushankin , Millersville University. Andrew S. Bledsoe , Lee University. Terry L. Beckenbaugh , Air Command and Staff College. David J. Fitzpatrick , Washtenaw Community College. Hyeok Hweon "H. Cheng-Heng Lu , Emory University. Qichen "Bart" Qian , Columbia University. Coalitions Transforming Landscapes in Three Wars, Nicholas M. Sambaluk , Air University.

Joseph F. Smith Library for the Study of George Washington. Joseph J. Varuolo , Air University. Matthew S. Muehlbauer , United States Military Academy. Scorched Earth as Tactic and Strategy. Reina Pennington , Norwich University. Geoffrey Megargee , U. Holocaust Memorial Museum.

Red River Campaign of 1864 and the Loss by the Confederacy

Fit to Fight? War, Medicine, and Disease. Marion Dorsey , University of New Hampshire. Jessica Adler , Florida International University. Will Walker , Arkansas State University. Kari L. Boyd , The University of Alabama. Ryan W. Booth , Washington State University. Murray , University of Virginia. Tracy L. Barnett , University of Georgia. Ethan S. Lisa L. Lee W. Eysturlid , IMSA.

Stephen Morrilo , Wabash College. Peter Lorge , Vanderbilt University. Silbey , Cornell University. Publishing: Ask the Experts. Joyce Harrison , University Press of Kansas. Adam Kane , University of Oklahoma Press. Paul Merzlak , Naval Institute Press. William Fletcher , King's College London. Hailey A. Stewart , University of North Texas.

War Crimes and Postwar Justice After David Wildermuth , Shippensburg University. Connor Sebestyen , University of Toronto. Brian K. Feltman , Georgia Southern University. Karen Petrone , University of Kentucky. Jonathan Fennell , King's College London. Robert Johnson , University of Oxford. Lawrence 'of Arabia' and the Desert War, Roderick Bailey , University of Oxford. James H. Robert J. Thompson , Public Radio International.

Uyen Nguyen , Texas Tech University. James Sandy , University of Texas - Arlington. John Worsencroft , Louisiana Tech University. Margaret B. That said, there is also plenty of good narrative and high drama for the general reader. A priest is found murdered in his New Orleans rectory. When compromising videotapes are discovered in his bedroom, the Bishop and his staff withhold this damaging evidence from the police.

The district attorney, a faithful Catholic and good friend of the Bishop, helps bury the truth. But this is one of the first cases, long before the floodgates are opened two decades later. When Father Edward McMurray discovers the body and calls on his loyal nephew, Peter Moore, to remove the videotapes and examine them in private elsewhere, the two men must face the moral consequences of their participation in a cover-up that compromises their integrity and threatens to shatter their faith in the institution of the Catholic Church.

Thomas Zigal leads the reader through the darkest alleys of New Orleans as Father McMurray and Peter Moore conduct their own harrowing investigations before they finally confront the murderer in an explosive finale. His novels have won the Jesse H. Zigal lives in Austin, Texas. Turning the Pages of Texas is a collection of sixty essays about Texas books, authors, book collectors, libraries, and bookstores. It is a book for booklovers and bookish readers.

Lonn Taylor writes from the point of view of a historian who has been reading books about Texas for seventy years, since he was seven years old, and who has known many of the authors he writes about. He presents his reflections about well-known figures such as John Graves, J. Frank Dobie, and Larry McMurtry. He also introduces readers to people like folklorist C. Some of the authors Taylor writes about are truly obscure, like Gertrude Beasley, who published her autobiography in Paris in and died in a New York insane asylum, or Tony Cano, whose self-published autobiographical novel describes what it was like to be poor and Mexican in West Texas in the s.

He is the author of numerous scholarly books and articles on the architecture and decorative arts of the Southwest. He is married to Edith Uunila Dedie Taylor. This coffee table book takes a look back at some of the most interesting and engaging drawings by Harold Maples, the long-time political cartoonist for the Fort Worth Star-Telegram. A native-born Texan, Maples was a staple in Fort Worth for decades and was as loved by his community as he was by his diehard fans. Political cartoons are excellent teachers of history, and readers will be amazed at how succinctly Maples boiled down complex ideas into simple and amusing drawings.

As much as his skill is evident, however, his humorous, kind-hearted nature shows through every one of his cartoons. Each chapter explores not only how Maples depicted an event or an idea but also how his craft and opinions evolved over time. Maples covered events that have been lost to the back pages of history books, so each cartoon is accompanied by an explanation that provides historical context as well as artistic analysis.

Texas Political History. Ron Tyler Critic Michael Ennis stated twenty-five years ago that there has never been more than a cursory overview of Texas art from the nineteenth century to the present. By the twentieth century, most Texas artists had received formal training and produced work in styles similar to European and other American artists. Written by noted scholars, art historians, and curators, this survey is the first attempt to analyze and characterize Texas art on a grand scale.

He was the editor-in-chief of The New Handbook of Texas 6 vols. He has published a number of works in the areas of American, Western American, Texan, and Mexican art and history. Gift Books. In , at one summer morning, paramilitary forces broke into a house in a quiet upscale neighborhood of Buenos Aires.

Inside, sleeping, were two nineteen-year-old girls and a twentyyear-old boy. This was the house of the esteemed Argentinian poet Juan Gelman, but he was not home. They disappeared into the night. In , Gelman found out that his son had been executed and his remains buried in a barrel filled with sand and cement. Ten years later he was able to locate his granddaughter, who had been born in a back-door hospital and given to a progovernment family. For Juan Gelman, one of the most celebrated Latin American poets of the twentieth century, this was one of many grim events.

Born in , his was a life of narrow escapes. As an Ashkenazi Jew, poet, guerrilla fighter, freethinker, and prolific journalist, he escaped three death sentences decreed by groups on both the right and the left in Argentina. He was a victim of state terrorism in that country, and still he made his voice heard.

For his poetry, Gelman was awarded the Cervantes Prize in , the most prestigious award in Spanish literature. Because nothing could suppress his voice, he expressed the dreams of an entire generation. Through it all we hear the ringing voice of a singular poet. He has served as a professor of literature at Yale, Rider, and North Carolina State Universities and was recently honored with the Pakal de Oro award for his groundbreaking work.

Tom Pendleton Originally published in under the pen name Tom Pendleton, The Iron Orchard garnered a cult following for its authentic representation of the people and business of the Texas and American Southwest oil fields. Now available again in a new edition, The Iron Orchard tells the story of a young Texan, Jim McNeely, who is desperate to make a name for himself in the oil fields of Texas.

Told from the inside by a man who knew the oil fields intimately, it is a vibrant, brutal story of the men who labored, sweated, lusted, and gambled their money and spirits to pump oil out of the earth. It is the adventure of violent men among other violent men. The Iron Orchard is magnificent and memorable reading. Carol Coffee Reposa The poetry of Carol Coffee Reposa reflects the wide diversity of her life experience as a wife, mother, grandmother, teacher, traveler, musician, gardener, swimmer, and lifelong lover of the arts. Although born in southern California, she comes from an unabashedly Texan family, and her work draws heavily on the history, climate, and culture of the Lone Star State.

She makes her home in San Antonio. Edited by Peggy Watson, Mark Wassenich, Sarah-Marie Horning, and Dan Williams Celebrating Fifty Years of Achievement: Honors at TCU traces the history and impact of Honors at TCU from its beginning as a small program in the early s through the present day, highlighting how its courses and cocurricular activities not only enrich student learning but also campus culture.

Much of the material in this book was gathered as part of an Honors oral history project. Honors students interviewed dozens of administrators, faculty, staff, students, and alumni, whose words they then transcribed, edited, and annotated. Thus Celebrating Fifty Years of Achievement is a uniquely collaborative book filled with multiple voices, perspectives, and events. Combined with editorial introductions and descriptions, these voices explore course development and curriculum initiatives, student research and creativity, cocurricular activities and events, experiential learning, and community building.

Beginning with a foreword by Chancellor Victor J. Boschini Jr. Nowell Donovan, this book traces Honors from its earliest discussions to its current status as the John V. Yet Celebrating 50 Years of Achievement is not simply about the past but looks forward to the future, concluding with a section of advice to future Honors students and an epilogue by Dr. Roach Honors College, who outlines goals of Honors in the future. Horner shares her struggle to answer that question in Probably Someday Cancer.

The mother of a one-year-old boy, she wanted to do whatever would give her the best odds of being around for her son and protect her from breast cancer, which killed her grandmother and great-grandmother in their 40s. Which would give her the best chance at a long healthy life: a double mastectomy or frequent screenings to try to catch any cancer early? Based on extensive research, interviews, and personal experience, Horner writes about how and why she ultimately opted for a double mastectomy—the same decision actress Angelina Jolie made for a similar genetic mutation—and the surprising diagnosis that followed.

The book explores difficult truths that get overshadowed by upbeat messages about early detection and survivorship—the fact that screenings can miss cancers and that even early-stage breast cancers can spread and become fatal. This book can help anyone facing hereditary risk of breast and ovarian cancer feel less alone and make informed decisions to protect their health and end the devastation that hereditary cancer has caused for generations in so many families. She received a Rosalynn Carter Fellowship for Mental Health Journalism and awards from the Texas Medical Association and Public Health Association for her coverage of the increased use of genetic testing for breast cancer risk.

She lives in Richardson, Texas. Medical Humanities. The Ensemble enjoyed tremendous popularity in the s and s, despite occasional official disapproval by the Soviet bureaucracy. Volkonsky eventually emigrated to escape the oppressive conditions, followed soon after, in , by Tumanov, and the Madrigal Ensemble continued in a changed form under new leaders. The story of the author's subsequent life and career in Canada provides a poignant point of contrast with his Soviet period — at the musical, academic, and political levels.

This book is a valuable resource for those interested in the history of music and intellectual life in Russia, Ukraine, and the Soviet Union in the twentieth century and is the first published book on the Madrigal Ensemble. During the time of Terry L. In Navy and Marine F-4 Phantom jets, the RIO was a second pair of eyes for the pilot, in charge of communications and navigation, and great to have during emergencies. Thorsen endured the tough Platoon Leaders Course at Quantico and barely earned a commission.

He underwent aviation and intercept training while suffering airsickness issues—and still earned his wings. In combat, Thorsen felt angst when he saw the sky darken around him from anti-aircraft artillery explosions high above the Ho Chi Minh Trail. On his first close air support mission in support of ground troops the majority of his Marine aviation missions , he witnessed tracers whiz by his canopy.

On one harrowing sortie, he and his pilot purposely became the target to save an Army unit battling an enemy just a hundred feet away. For one mission a friend survived a crash landing, but a training instructor vanished without a trace. After retiring as a major, he was a professional photographer, a crime scene investigator, and finally a police department crime lab supervisor.

He lives in Mansfield, Texas. Vietnam War. Kevin P. Gilheany had two dreams: to join the Coast Guard, and to play the bagpipes. Undeterred by the doubts of the folks at home, he decided to enlist in the Coast Guard anyway. With great determination, and some divine intervention, he passed the swim test and graduated from boot camp, thus beginning an eventful and diverse twenty-year career in the s and s Coast Guard.

When he was asked by one of his men, who was dying from brain cancer, to play bagpipes at his retirement ceremony, Kevin started down a new path to have bagpipers officially recognized as part of the Coast Guard. Coast Guard Pipe Band. He is a recipient of the U. Coast Guard Public Service Commendation.

This is a valuable and well-written Coast Guard memoir. Anyone interested in Coast Guard history, the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, Pipe Bands, or Homeland Security with incoming foreign commercial vessels would be interested in this book. Coast Guard. Homeland Security. Search and Rescue. Elrod Edited by Fred H. In Beyond the Quagmire, thirteen scholars from across disciplines provide a series of provocative, important, and timely essays on the politics, combatants, and memory of the Vietnam War.

The essays pose new questions, offer new answers, and establish important lines of debate regarding social, political, military, and memory studies. Part 1 contains four chapters by scholars who explore the politics of war in the Vietnam era. In Part 2, five contributors offer chapters on Vietnam combatants with analyses of race, gender, environment, and Chinese intervention.

Part 3 provides four innovative and timely essays on Vietnam in history and memory. He devotes much of his memoir to the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, in which the 35th Division suffered heavy casualties and made only moderate gains before being replaced by fresh troops. Schrantz also describes the daily life of a soldier, including living conditions, relations between officers and enlisted men, and the horrific experience of combat.

Charles Darwin spent the majority of his — voyage around the world in southern South America, and his early experiences in the Cape Horn region seem to have triggered his first ideas on human evolution. Darwin was not only a field naturalist, but also a scholar of the observations of the European explorers who preceded him. World History. Ranging from sonnets and sestinas to experimental forms, these poems are unified by their musicality, devotion to craft, and openness of heart. Trees were your fingers, not prints or clues. Never were you uppercase with me.

He has held visiting positions at Yale and Mt. Theoria is an annual peer-reviewed journal on all aspects of the history of music theory. It includes critical articles representing the current stage of research, and editions of newly discovered or mostly unknown theoretical texts with translation and commentary. Analytical articles on recent or unknown repertory and methods are also published, as well as review articles on recent secondary literature and textbooks. The Military History of the West is a peer-reviewed journal focused on scholarly study of western US military history, including the Mississippi Valley and all states west of that line.

As an orphan, William Burnham Chilvers did not have parents to coach him through his journey of life that took him across the sea from Great Britain to the United States. Years of hard marching and tough fighting carried him through the Vicksburg Campaign and into Louisiana and the Red River Campaign. He served in Missouri, then at Nashville and Brice's Crossroads, before finishing his career assaulting the Confederate works near Mobile, Alabama.

Through it all, Chilvers was a strong abolitionist and sympathetic to the plight of slaves. He wrote about the atrocities faced by African Americans at the hands of Southern whites—as well as by his fellow Union soldiers. His letters and the editors' research tell stories of massacres, combat, and idealism in the face of the brutal realities of war. William Chilvers and the Ninety-Fifth Illinois Infantry fought to victory, but his experience transcends mere combat and instead reveals the development of a remarkable man whose compassion and humanity rose above the ugliness of the Civil War.

Civil War. American History. A Civil War enthusiast since childhood, Pressly is currently working on a number of scholarly projects related to the conflict. GARY D. He lives in Shreveport, Louisiana, with his wife, Marilyn, who is also his editor, PR consultant, and business partner, and who shares his love of history. North and South collided in Missouri, causing a state conflict that was also the second major battle of the Civil War. Updated Edition. In early , most Missourians hoped they could remain neutral in the upcoming conflict between North and South.

Instead, Missourians saw themselves as ideologically centered between the radical notions of abolition and secession. By summer , however, the situation had deteriorated dramatically. Because of the actions of politicians and soldiers such as Missouri Gov. Claiborne Jackson and Union Gen. Nathaniel Lyon, Missourians found themselves forced to take sides. In this updated edition, author Jeffrey Patrick tells the fascinating story of high-stakes military gambles, aggressive leadership, and lost opportunities.

Campaign for Wilson's Creek is a tale of unique military units, untried but determined commanders, colorful volunteers, and professional soldiers. The first major campaign of the Civil War to take place west of the Mississippi River guaranteed that Missourians would be engaged in a long, cruel civil war within the larger, national struggle. He lives in Republic, Missouri.

Patrick provides an excellent overview of the campaign and battle of Wilson's Creek, the second major Confederate victory of the Civil War. Patrick's extensive research, use of lively quotations, and strong narrative combine for a compelling story. The End of American Literature explores the dynamics and stakes of the late age of print. A time when one day it seems like printed books and bookstores are on the decline, whereas on another it is ebooks and the digital utopia showing signs of slippage. The feeling that something is ending—not that something is beginning—is seen both in our prognostications on the fate of capitalism, democracy, and America as well as in declarations of the end of the book, literature, and theory.

The essays here take up these timely topics not with a nostalgic nod to the past or utopian utterances to the future, but rather firmly situated in the expansiveness of the present. He is editor and founder of the critical theory journal symploke, editor and publisher of the American Book Review, and Executive Director of the Society for Critical Exchange.

He resides in Victoria, Texas. Kennedy Poetry Prize. The poems are mostly lyrical, often personal, and always accessible. He lives with his wife in northeastern Vermont. He takes us on a journey through mystery from travail toward understanding that leads us back to mystery. The world remains the world; it is he who pushes back. The World Pushes Back provides a refreshing surprise in every poem: one reads the deftest of sonnets, say, just before a long free-verse meditation.

Ignoring the trendy, Garret Keizer unflaggingly and only offers things that matter: love, both eros and agape; anger at social injustice—without facile judgment and with earnestness and wit. A long time coming, this is a breathtaking poetic debut. Gregory Byrd The poems in The Name for the God Who Speaks reference Caribbean deities, the power of weather and landscape and ancient myths to illuminate an annus horribilis of cancer and loss.

In the last poems, youth and music redeem the experience. This is the Name for the God who Speaks Father, you would know these primal prayers, light flashing in the west behind live oaks, a sky-slashed language dead after Conquest. From that living world, we share only lightning, an old god speaking light out of darkness, a chant of rain as alphabet where water flowing is a word.

He has lived in Pinellas County since when he began studies in literature and creative writing at Eckerd College under the instruction of Florida Poet Laureate Peter Meinke and novelist Sterling Watson. He has taught writing, literature, and humanities at St. Petersburg College, Clearwater since Poem after poem, Byrd delivers what we expect to find in a good book of poetry: convincing narratives, memorable images, and a meditative impulse that knows to linger just long enough.

It is refreshing to discover a poet who is not obscure or clever for the sake of cleverness; who tells a clear and convincing story and, yet, who does not shy away from the complicated, often difficult, particulars of living that exist just beyond the reach of easy explanation. Kennedy, author of New River Breakdown. In the opening story of Posing Nude for the Saints, the daughter of a prostitute falls in love with a Mennonite and finds herself torn between two worlds.

The title story follows a divorcee who responds to a Craigslist ad for boudoir photography and finds more than what she bargained for. Set primarily in rural east Tennessee, the stories in Posing Nude for the Saints portray men and women whose souls are all exposed, and for whom redemption is yet possible. Her fiction has appeared in the O. Henry Prize anthology of and in dozens of literary journals. Currently she teaches creative writing, literature, and composition, and also works as a private writing coach for aspiring authors.

Short Stories. Widower and former pastor, Rex Wells is struggling with Parkinson's disease when his twenty-sevenyear-old daughter, Wendy, lands the starring role in an action movie. He makes the arduous journey from Nashville to the Hollywood premiere but finds the aptly titled Overkill almost as disagreeable as her filmmaker boyfriend—a millionaire twice her age and, for better or worse, the father of Rex's newborn grandson.

Even as Overkill makes Wendy a star, a scandal from her past ignites a paparazzi feeding frenzy, and Rex finds himself contending with an anonymous internet troll whose disturbingly personal attacks force Rex to confront a past scandal of his own—the adulterous affair that cost him his ministry. When Wendy enlists him in a morally dubious publicity scheme, he has to decide how far he's willing to go to protect her career.

Born and raised in Atlanta, C. He lives with his wife and children in Nashville, Tennessee, where he works as a radiologist. This man looks homeless—is homeless. His neck is filthy, his teeth rotten in an unsmiling mouth. As the story unfolds, Gabe wrestles with confusion. Should he give his father a second chance—the father who is now destitute, possibly ill, pathetic, and an alcoholic? Life has never been easy for Gabe on the streets of Fresno. It is meant to be read more than once—each reading will reveal more about his mother, playground life, forgiveness, and the healing nature of dog that comes into his life.

The afternoon was hot, maddening hot. He stopped under a tree and spied the temperature on the corner bank building: Through the wavering heat, he eyed a figure in a 49ers sweatshirt. Dang, Gabe thought. A sweatshirt in this heat? Gabe wondered. Was this homeless man looking for a handout? The man did his best to hoist a smile.

He had also loaded the car with cases of soda and bottledwater, as if he were thirsty for a life other than the one he had with them. Austin State University Press. Born and raised in Fresno, he now lives in Berkeley, California. PJ Purdee is a year-old boy with a restless disposition and a curiosity and intelligence beyond his years. As a barefoot runner, he is likely to show up almost anywhere along the sandy roads that reach out from the cotton farms of the prairie into the impenetrable thicket grown up in the miles of Cutover where a virgin longleaf pine forest once stood. While the boy gains acceptance and appreciation, his mother Belle is in a far different place in her life.

In her captivating style, Nancy Demme weaves a tale of what it means to be human and growing up in deep Texas. Diego Ramirez, 15, anonymous, obsessed by fire, flees his home in El Paso after setting fire to the barn where his abusive stepfather is working. Through loss and love, redemption finds a way to help Diego unravel his crime and the crimes against him. He is the author of multiple scholarly and professional books and hundreds of professional papers and articles, focusing largely on global telecommunications and media.

In his new and selected, Jim Barnes crafts bliss from the urgent and allusive with an enigmatic voice that is often mysterious. A lot depends on image. Use your masks. Speak the language if you can. Poems are social. They reach out, however crookedly, to another person, however imperfectly imagined. And sometimes they not only embody but enact those things that we might value in the other parts of our social lives—kindness, for example, or joy—as well as the complications those values entail.

Looking closely at poems from Lucille Clifton, Elizabeth Bishop, Gwendolyn Brooks, Terrance Hayes, Spencer Reece, Robert Pinsky, Claudia Rankine, Jericho Brown, Patricia Lockwood, Ross Gay, Paisley Rekdal, Gabrielle Calvocoressi, and many others, That Peculiar Affirmative tries to understand what it means for a poem to be humble or humorous, decorous or confident, and what that tells us not only about poems, but also about the larger world of social virtues, personal vulnerabilities, and political problems that define so much of our time together and apart.

He teaches middle and high school English, and he lives in Durham, NC. Literary Criticism. Taking off from Sita, the main female character in the Ramayana, explores her decision to leave her husband, Ram, and return to her mother, Earth. These translations are not simply the same poems in a different language; Cassells has crafted new poetry. The gentle and delicate rhythms of Parcerisas have been contracted into shorter lines that explore sharper cadences whilst Cassells carefully maintains a sensitive continuity in the opening feet.

This is poetry for the ear first and the page second, Cassells has stronger consonants at his disposal, a resource that he skilfully exploits. The ultimate product of his labours is a short collection of poetry that reads and feels like a work of English Literature, a sensation that is perhaps the highest compliment one may bestow upon a Literary Translation. He has been a recipient of the Peter I. Single Adults: Lives Well Lived celebrates the wisdom and wit of single adults who are living their lives to the fullest.

Sometimes humorous, sometimes contemplative, this marvelous collection of ten authors share their secrets and insights to living a meaningful lives as single adults. Their intimate memories and inspiring personal histories will make you laugh, perhaps cry, but mostly inspire you. Red Dirt Memories is a tribute to a way of life that has almost disappeared as quickly as it began, taking you beyond pastures dotted with herds of cattle, past the hatchery, the feed mill, and then to the foot of Swift Hill, where a red dirt road winds down then up again for two miles.

Then as now, a car raises a cloud of red dust to signal a visitor, where only a clearing is left of the pine shack it once held, with the smokehouse and the outhouse beyond long decayed and torn down. Wild honeysuckle has taken over the chimney remnants, and all the ghosts simply wait for the right moment to conjure their old memories in this timeless collection that reminds us of our similarities, rather than the differences that divide us. Austin State University, his first and only professional position, which covers nearly six decades.

He is the author of several books, including The Legacy of W. In addition to teaching, Dr. Towns serves as a renown authority on single adults, communication workshops, and navigating through the grief process. Sarah Fioroni shares family traditions, recipes, stories of daily life, and provides a month-bymonth glimpse of farm living. This mutual antipathy reaches such an extreme that in some ways it exceeds the unbridled fury of two nations, completely at odds, who vituperate and insult each other.

Their protest also highlighted the already deep split between Spaniards and Creoles, a reality seriously underestimated by historians Salvador de Madariaga and Jaime E. In addition to their infamous origin, pardos, mulattos, and zambos are also dishonored by their illegitimacy, for if they are not themselves bastards, their parents almost certainly are.

The attackers soon controlled the plaza, while the Royalists retired to two strong positions: the pardo barracks and the Convent of San Francisco. The cautious Miranda did not dare face the army of Spanish naval captain Domingo Monteverde. Instead, he withdrew to Guacara under cover of darkness. The young Creole seemed destined for glory. They stopped water, food, and reinforcements from entering the city. The Patriot army grew as aristocrats arrived with their laborers and foot soldiers.

The Patriots faced no more than seven hundred enemy troops. They fought until dark, held their positions overnight, and renewed the attack at dawn. Fighting continued until noon, when the pardos surrendered. Congress apparently agreed and called Miranda back to Caracas to defend himself. The charming Miranda eloquently defended himself against all charges. Three charges related to having caused unnecessary bloodshed.

Miranda had also announced a number of times that he would not obey orders of Congress or the executive power. He returned two years later to New Granada to continue plotting and agitating. Through power of his personality and the sword, he eventually defeated the Federalists, assumed dictatorial powers, and united Patriot forces in repelling the Royalists.

Over the years, many French, Scottish, and German immigrants served ably with the Patriot forces. Unemployed veterans from both sides of Waterloo would join ranks to aid the Latin American Patriots. He had operated in the area in league with the French privateer Louis Aury and other privateers. He paid a local potentate a pittance plus whiskey and baubles for a land grant of some seventy thousand square miles. By mid-year, the survivors had retreated to neighboring British Honduras Belize. MacGregor eventually served prison terms in England and France, cold comfort to the hundreds of lives lost or shattered by his schemes.

Both sought to persuade Congress that Venezuela needed a strong centralized authority.

Greatest Mysteries of the Civil War: The Lost Ironclads and Submarines

It provided for a loose confederation of states and a triple executive. Like many new Latin American nations, Venezuela borrowed heavily from the Federalism embedded in the Constitution of the United States. Some sections from the U. Articles of Confederation. Patriot women as well as men wished to serve the new Republic. Since all men had been sent to San Fernando, the women wondered why the government had not called on them to defend the province.

We wish to enlist and supplement the military forces which have departed for San Fernando. North of Barinas, Royalists gained momentum in Coro and the western part of Caracas. He urged that Royalists attack Siquisique. Before he arrived at Siquisique, however, Reyes Vargas had surprised and imprisoned the Patriot troops. They captured more artillery, muskets, and munitions.

Monteverde killed some of the inhabitants, imprisoned the rest, and sacked the city. Nature intervened in a deadly, dramatic fashion. Thousands of people died in churches, crowded on Holy Thursday, and dozens of Patriot-held towns and cities lay in ruins. Four thousand people died in the churches of Caracas; ten thousand in the whole city; and another ten thousand in the surrounding environs. More of the injured later died.

As he neared the plaza of San Jacinto, the earth shook and rumbled. He ran toward the middle of the plaza. He saw the church of San Jacinto collapse. As he stood alone in the midst of the ruins, he heard groans from the church. I saw about forty persons dead or dying under the rubble. I climbed out again, and I shall never forget that moment. Utmost terror or desperation was painted on his face. Some priests thundered that the quake was the wrath of God.

Indeed, the destruction seemed greatest in areas controlled by Patriot forces. He threatened one of the priests and forced him down from the table that served as his pulpit. A Royalist reaction swept the land. Many members of Congress hurried from Valencia to Caracas to burn or bury their dead. Patriot leaders tried to help the destitute and counter the growing religious backlash. Meanwhile, Monteverde swept in unchallenged from the west.

Patriot garrisons deserted en mass, and inhabitants rushed to welcome him. He moved south from Barquisimeto to Araura. The rump Congress relinquished full powers to the triumvirate and adjourned to face the new calamity. The U. Monteverde capitalized on the natural disaster and by April controlled the entire west of the nation. Miranda rode toward Caracas to secure money and troops. According to local legend probably apocryphal , it received the name Cabello hair , because a single hair could hold a moored vessel to the dock in the smooth-as-glass harbor.

Its fort, San Felipe, held many important Royalist prisoners. Fort San Felipe on the western tip of the peninsula protected the town and served as a prison for the most dangerous enemies of the Republic. A sturdy wall separated the town from Corito, a battery on the northwest corner, running down the west side and across the south, but not on the east or bay side. The treasonous subordinate and his hundred-man garrison released and armed the prisoners.

At Corito, Mires heard strange noises coming from the fort. He rowed out in a small boat to investigate. Mires answered with his small cannon. Men on the wall peppered the fort with musket shot. Patriot artillery and muskets fell silent while a messenger rowed to the fortress and delivered the note. Nearly all our food and munitions are in the fortress. Royalists have all the vessels that were in the harbor except for our Zeloso [a schooner] which escaped.

Monteverde is sure to attack. He cannot have failed to hear the cannon. If you do not attack the enemy immediately in the rear, this position is lost. I shall hold out as long as possible. Because of this action, my spirit is crushed much more than all of the province. General, my spirits are so depressed that I do not feel that I have the courage to command a single soldier. My vanity forced me to believe that my desire to succeed and my burning zeal for my country would serve to replace the talents which I lacked as a commander.

The unfortunate Miranda was heading toward his own personal and political tragedy. He issued a long proclamation asking the citizens of Valencia to expel Monteverde and reunite with the people of Caracas. Miranda dispatched an advance force to retake Valencia. Three miles from Valencia, the troops deserted and joined Monteverde. Miranda retired eastward with his army and camped at Maracay, twenty-seven miles from Valencia.

Faced with the bleak military situation, they summarily swept away any constitutional vestiges and designated Miranda dictator. This unwise delay gave Monteverde time to occupy the twenty-seven-mile area between Valencia and Maracay. The Precursor then ordered the troops to disarm and clean their guns. Only MacGregor and his cavalry remained on the alert to contain Monteverde. Royalist forces ranged the llanos of Caracas, killing Patriots and freeing prisoners.

Their victories gave Royalists the bounty of the plains: vast herds of cattle food , horses transportation , and mules money. The latter could be sold at good prices in the Caribbean islands. Crisscrossed by many rivers, streams, and swamps, the llanos is also shrouded by forests of dense trees and shrubs matas. To the north and west the mighty Andes mountains rise and bound the plains. Tropical rain forests along the Guaviare and Amazon Rivers bound it to the south.

The lower Orinoco River and the Guiana Highlands form the eastern boundary of the llanos. The area averages about forty-seven inches of rainfall per year, but virtually all the rain falls within a six-month period. The torrential rains inundate vast low-lying areas that become nearly impassible. The tropical climate of the llanos made infection and disease constant threats to soldiers and their animals.

The many rivers held their own dangers, including voracious piranhas, large crocodiles, and electric eels. Fighting in this tortuous land, Boves and other caudillos headed armies of llaneros. Spaniards and Creoles had raised cattle and horses in the llanos since the mid-sixteenth century. Franciscan and Capuchin priests had established mission villages in the llanos by the mid-seventeenth century. Aside from landowners and priests, most people living in the llanos were nonwhite, Indian, mestizo, black, or mulatto. As with all cowhands, the llanero always carried a knife or machete.

Like cowboys everywhere, the llanero subsisted on a rather meager diet. All carried the indispensable poncho, or cobija, well adapted to the vicissitudes of the tropical plains. It also serves as a protection from the scorching rays of the sun, experience having taught its wearer that a thick woolen covering keeps the body moist and cool by day, and warm by night.

His infantry followed MacGregor, loading their muskets on the run, while the artillery moved its weapons into position. Finally, Miranda, commanding the lancers, threw himself into the thick of the fray. In that victorious moment everyone yelled to pursue the enemy and complete the splendid triumph; but Miranda, deaf to the clamor, ordered troops to return to their quarters.


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The exhilaration of having defeated Monteverde and his best troops turned to dismay and disgust. As was the custom, surviving Royalist troops would have deserted to the victors. Switching sides was how troops and civilians survived the terrible, bloody independence wars. Miranda got yet another chance to destroy the Royalists. Paying no attention, Miranda ordered his troops back to their former positions at La Victoria. Another Patriot opportunity squandered! Yesterday Monteverde had no powder, no lead, no muskets; today he has forty tons of powder, lead in abundance, and three thousand muskets!

By this time they should be in possession of everything. During his absence, a movement to depose him spread in the army. Cornelio Mota, a pardo whom Miranda had promoted to captain, was to seize him as he returned to camp. Mota failed to take him, however, and Miranda became aware of his danger. He rounded up the ringleaders and imprisoned them; however, he could not suppress the growing anger and impatience directed against him.

Miranda made many political and military errors. However, this measure only alienated slaveholders, many of them Creoles who feared the loss of their property. His person and fame threatened, lacking public support, fearful of further bloodshed, irritated by defections, and fatigued in spirit, Miranda saw his dream and glory fading.

Revolution in practice had proved much more trying than in theory. The Precursor could never be the Liberator, but he still ruled as dictator of Venezuela. They allowed very little food to enter Caracas from the east. All members of the council agreed that Miranda should negotiate surrender terms with Monteverde.

He ordered Las Casas to prepare the Zeloso and three gunboats for immediate departure. They knew of the negotiations, but they did not know the terms.

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Was Miranda running away? They also refused to hand over La Victoria and its supplies to the enemy. They elected Juan Pablo Ayala commander-in-chief and broke into the supply depots. Whether he was an agent of the British Government as he now states, or whether this conduct resulted from a base and cowardly heart, I cannot decide.

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To their horror, they found the port closed. Meanwhile, Monteverde had entered La Victoria, empty of troops and supplies. He pursued the Patriot troops at Antimano, who scattered in retreat. Go get some rest. Miranda immediately opened the port. The hour was late when Haynes rose to leave and urged Miranda to board the Sapphire immediately. The land breeze will soon arise and you will be cool and comfortable. Your books and papers are already there. Miranda hesitated and then decided to stay the night in La Guaira and embark in the morning. A fateful and fatal decision!

Haynes departed. Miranda asked to be excused and retired to the room set aside for him. Their deliberations complete, they awakened Miranda and told him he was a prisoner. Hispanophiles, like Salvador de Madariaga and Jaime E. Denial, self-doubt, displaced anger, shame—many emotions must have coursed through his veins. He always followed his repeated defeats and disasters with renewed, resolute action. That perseverance and his ability to inspire loyalty explain much of his success. While his moods could swing wildly from elation to dejection, his determination seldom wavered for long.

Miranda may have genuinely accepted peaceful coexistence with a liberal Spanish monarchy as preferable to continued savage, internecine violence. Refugees had already boarded the Zeloso and other vessels. Shots destroyed the cabin of the Matilda and sank another vessel.

Contrary currents and calm winds prevented its escape. When Chataing gave the signal, his crew was to raise anchor, move the Matilda beyond cannon shot, and wait for him. Within minutes the Matilda had moved beyond danger. Two other vessels followed her to safety.

Iturbe pleaded again and Monteverde relented. Penniless, he lived on the charity of others until the end of October. The city of Cartagena lies on the Caribbean coast of New Granada today Colombia , some sixty-two miles southwest of Barranquilla. Creoles there wanted trade not only with Spain but also with other nations. Spanish forces under Gen. Pablo Morillo retook it after a fourmonth siege. Many residents died of disease and starvation. In a desperate attempt to escape Spanish rule, Cartagena even declared itself a part of the British Empire.

British policy, however, tried to steer a path of technical neutrality and ignored the proclamation. Monroe ordered the U. Some provinces and cities recognized its leadership, but not Cartagena. He made Cartagena a privateer base and issued letters of marque at a time when no other bases were available in the Caribbean. He had time to assess Spain and her American colonies. They had to unite to defeat Monteverde. The political power struggle resulted in a civil war that again threatened the Patriot cause. The nonwhite masses did not share the Enlightenment values of their white Creole masters.

His views also provided insight into why he later faced charges of dictatorial rule. It would not be the last display of political foolishness in the region. The Magdalena marked the boundary between the provinces of Cartagena and Santa Marta and served as the main highway between the Republic of Cartagena on the coast and the Federation of United Provinces, with its capital at Tunja. Santa Martans had cut communications between Cartagena and the interior at Tenerife, not far upriver from Barrancas, and at small towns farther up the river. Local militia and a few Spanish troops from Cuba garrisoned these towns.

A day or so later, he sent Anita home, promising to return. He then sailed up the Magdalena, taking Royalist villages on the Santa Marta side and freeing Patriot villages on the western side. The victory emboldened the young Patriot. It would not be the last time that the mountain air of the Andes would chill the Patriots to the quick. In less than two months you have concluded two campaigns and commenced a third which begins here.

All America waits for Liberty and salvation from you, intrepid soldiers of Cartagena and New Granada. He criticized as absurd the plan to invade Venezuela. He defended his actions to Secretary of State Crisanto Valenzuela and the Congress at Tunja, something he would have to repeat often during the independence wars and after. That panic is now incomparably greater in the minds not only of the common people but among the men of understanding and power who direct the multitude. Political intrigue disrupted the patriot leadership, as it would many times. Santander delivered the bad news that Castillo and the governor of Pamplona had ordered him to return there with his battalion.


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He father was probably Fernando Piar Lottyn of the merchant marine. Alas, his service to the Patriots and his life would come to a tragic end within a few years. Atrocities mounted on both sides, and the war became more vicious and bloody. They have violated the sacred rights of nations. They have broken the most solemn agreements and treaties. In fact, they have committed every manner of crime, reducing the Republic of Venezuela to the most frightful desolation. Justice therefore demands vengeance, and necessity compels us to exact it. And you Americans who, by error or treachery, have been lured from the paths of justice, are informed that your brothers, deeply regretting the error of your ways, have pardoned you as we are profoundly convinced that you cannot be truly to blame, for only the blindness and ignorance in which you have been kept up to now by those responsible for your crimes could have induced you to commit them.

Fear not the sword that comes to avenge you and to sever the ignoble ties with which your executioners have bound you to their own fate. You are hereby assured, with absolute impunity, of your honor, lives, and property. Our arms have come to protect you, and they shall never be raised against a single one of you, our brothers. Horrifying atrocities by both Spaniards and Patriots marred the entire independence era and set a bloody tone for the newly independent republics.

However, terror, especially public terror, had been a longstanding Spanish tactic. Monteverde had returned to Caracas at the beginning of June after a harrowing campaign in the east. At Barcelona he collected another two thousand Venezuelan militiamen, along with ammunition, and guns. Patriots did not shoot the men of color. Monteverde escaped because his zambo [Indian-black] orderly protected him.

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Patriot victories continued in July. The Patriots built up their war stores with captured Royalist arms and ammunition. Driven back twice, the Patriots charged again, this time capturing cannon and turning them on the enemy. Urdaneta followed with the rest of the army.

The Royalist troops formed in closed columns and retreated toward the mountains, hoping to escape to Valencia. Riding two men to a horse, the Patriots galloped around the enemy right. On the plains of Taguanes, the infantry dismounted and charged with cavalry support. The pincer movement of the combined infantry-cavalry column and the rest of the Patriot army cut the Spanish forces to pieces.

Colonel Izquierdo fell mortally wounded. Those Royalists not killed or wounded were taken prisoner. They would receive paid transportation out of the country. His remarkable string of unbroken victories, however, would not last much longer. Victories generated vengeance, and anarchy threatened Caracas, where looters sacked abandoned Royalist shops and houses. Respectable citizens armed themselves when they left their homes. The valley of Caracas reverberated with the sounds of artillery salvos, church bells clamoring, bands playing, and people huzzahing. They drew him, in about half an hour from the entrance of the city to his residence; he standing on the car, bare headed, and in full uniform, with a small wand of command in his hand.

They soon became lovers. Like George Washington, he was sterile. The Liberator fully exploited the power and allure of his machismo, the character of a powerful, conquering male in love and war so important in Latin American culture. He also understood and exploited the power of political theater. While his written words might sway the literate minority, his actions, including his triumphal entries, would appeal to the illiterate masses. Likewise his sweeping public proclamations appealed to reason and emotion and became a prototype for countless politicians who followed him.

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If Monteverde agreed to the treaty, he would have to arrange for an exchange of prisoners, then debark, leaving Puerto Cabello in Patriot hands. Unfortunately for the Patriots, Monteverde had recovered his composure and his courage. He refused to see the commission. Instead, he sent a tart reply saying that he would not consider any proposal that did not return Venezuela to the Royalists.

His refusal to deal with the Patriots encouraged Spaniards and Canary Islanders to arouse slaves and free people of color in the valleys south of Caracas. They camped eight miles north of Valencia at Naguanagua where the road to Puerto Cabello diverges. Royalist forces held three forts on the mountain spur directly behind Puerto Cabello: Vigia Baja, halfway up the spur; Vigia Alta still higher; and Mirador de Solano near the crest.

Urdaneta had orders to take Outer Town. The great noise of this bombardment and Patriot huzzahs convinced Zuazola, the commander at Solano, that the port had been taken. Furthermore, Monteverde probably felt no urge to save his blood-thirsty subordinate. He deployed the remainder of his army in echelon along the road between Naguanagua and Valencia. The reinforced and reinvigorated Royalists pursued the retreating Patriots.

Lamentably for the Patriots, a musket ball hit the gallant Girardot in the forehead and killed him as he raised the republican standard. His role in the Venezuelan drama would soon draw to a close. Despite their victories, the Patriots faced continued and varied obstacles. Miraculously, the impetuous commander would never be wounded in battle.

A corps of drummers led the procession that marched toward Caracas a few days later. They deposited the heart of their fallen hero in the cathedral. The law of duty, more powerful in me than the impulses of my heart, enjoins me to obey the wishes of a free people. May God keep you many years. His brother Francisco, enraged by the execution, took revenge by slaughtering every Royalist he found. The latter, a tavern owner in Piritu, Venezuela, served ably under Boves and well beyond. He owned a store at Calabozo, managed by a loyal old Indian. Boves roamed the llanos of Caracas and Barcelona, outdid llaneros in horsemanship, and became their leader, loyal to the Patriot cause.

He became one of the cruelest and most ferocious commanders in the wars for independence. I take the liberty to invite you to accelerate your movements in order that we may enter the illustrious capital of Venezuela together. Ultimately, the caudillos would win and political fragmentation, not unity, would characterize Spanish America. Boves and Morales controlled the llanos to the south of Caracas. Royalists to the southwest kept Barinas Province in a state of alarm, as did forces in the west at Coro and Maracaibo.

Patriot espionage was almost impossible, because most inhabitants supported King Ferdinand. The war for independence had not yet become a war of the masses. While rich Creoles wanted independence, Enlightenment ideals had not reached the poor, uneducated, colored masses. Meanwhile to the east, Boves and Morales recruited more llanero horsemen as they moved west from Barcelona Province toward Calabozo. Near Sombrero he heard cavalry approaching. He paused and readied for action just in case they proved to be the enemy. Boves attacked the Patriot left wing and threw it back across the stream.

The rainy season had turned the llanos into a freshwater sea where Patriot pursuers would quickly become easy prey. He had lost his entire army, including most of his horses, arms, cannons, and munitions. The loss of the cannons badly disconcerted his troops and gave the Patriots the victory. Boves, bowed but not beaten, learned from his mistakes. In future engagements his cavalry would predominate; infantry would be secondary. When he arrived at Guayabal, Boves tore the iron grillwork from windows and forged the metal into lance tips. He decreed that the possessions of the dead would be divided among the soldiers who defended the just and holy cause of the king.

His ambition, personalistic rule, and oligarchic tendencies clashed directly with the ego, goals, and values of the Liberator. Monagas would likewise jockey for political power, with varying success, for several decades after independence. The Royalists, positioned between the Patriots and Barquisimeto, awaited them. They drove the Royalist cavalry through Barquisimeto and out the opposite side. As Patriot infantry took Barquisimeto, someone apparently sounded retreat.

Urdaneta organized the survivors at Gamelotal and marched them to San Carlos. Hasten with aid to that place. After a six-hour battle, the Royalists retired. The next day, however, brought a bloody battle that pushed the Royalists back into high positions the Patriots could not attack. With the heights illuminated, they climbed down the north side of the mountain to Puerto Cabello. He could get no information from the hostile people in the countryside. Unfortunately, hidden Royalists surrounded and annihilated the Patriot force after it descended to the plain.

A lagoon, with cannon at each end, covered part of the enemy front. The Sin Nombre Battalion, armed with lances for want of muskets, deployed to the right. The tide of battle turned when the terrible lances of the Sin Nombre Battalion broke the Royalist line. Most of his battles before Araure should properly be called skirmishes.

They seldom involved more than a few hundred troops. He had regained the west. The regency ordered Cajigal to proceed from Angostura to Puerto Rico, where he would gather veteran troops from Spain and retake Venezuela. Divided, we shall be weaker, less respected by enemy and neutral powers alike.

Union under a single supreme government will be our strength and will make us formidable to all. He had left much of his liberated area unprotected while he concentrated troops for the Araure campaign. The terrible Boves, seconded by Morales, stood ready and determined to destroy the Second Republic and the Liberator. It would mark the high point of the Patriot cause for several years to come. First, European events turned against the Patriots. Each day intolerance against and persecution of liberals increased.

Granted, Spain stood in an unenviable position, so perhaps even a more able monarch would have fared poorly. As historian Jaime E. Given all the adversities, Spain did put up a remarkable battle to retain its New World holdings. The king also restored the hated Inquisition, suppressed by the Cortes the previous year, and used its powers to persecute independence leaders. Rival commanders deposed and sought to kill him. Losing in a power struggle to rival caudillo Manuel del Castillo, he bid his army farewell and sailed into exile on the island of Jamaica. Boves entered Calabozo and ordered his troops to behead eighty-seven white women there.

He also ordered the execution of thirty-two more people who were absent or in hiding. He then divided the property of the slain among his lancers, an incentive that worked well in attracting and keeping soldiers. Boves would make the independence struggle a war of class and race.

Regrettably, a host of self-interested caudillos would adopt his vicious model and perpetuate it through the nineteenth century. Boves, opposed to private property, rewarded his llaneros with pillage rights. Many soldiers had no clear ideological commitment to the Patriot or Royalist cause. Richard L. Cattle of the plains supplied them with beef, milk, and rawhide. As payment, they enjoyed the right to kill and plunder. If defeated in battle, the wily llaneros dispersed quickly over a wide area and regrouped later at a prearranged spot.

The merciless Boves achieved the amazing feat of enlisting some eight thousand llaneros. Boves dominated the plains south of Valencia and Caracas.

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Royalists in Coro enjoyed large stores of war materiel from Puerto Rico and veteran troops from Spain. Among the Patriots, Rafael Urdaneta had twelve hundred infantry and a few dragoons at Barquisimeto. He had to cover the Coro frontier as well as Barinas. All told, the Patriots had only six thousand troops, spread thinly in the long mountain arc from Barinas to Caracas. Royalists, however, soon shortened the western end.

Rich Creoles faced impoverishment. The British governor at St. Thomas, however, sent him back to La Guaira. The British again detained them at St. Thomas and sent them back to La Guaira. Moreover, Britain was at war with the United States. As historian C. With his publications and personal meetings, Torres kept the Patriot cause before the American people.