There is no agreed-on definition among educators for violence in schools. Definitions vary from that of the American Psychological Association, Massive news media attention to a series of school shootings in the late s radically altered public attitudes toward schools and transformed Two teenagers armed with guns and bombs walked into Columbine High School in April Thirteen were killed before the two turned their guns on Violence in schools can include fatal and nonfatal victimizations and can range from school shootings and violent assaults to the more common minor.
School has historically been considered a safe place for youths. When killings occur in schools or on school grounds, it draws special attention Zero tolerance indicates a strict enforcement of rules or laws and that behaviors such as drug use, sexual harassment, or academic cheating will not.
Violence: How it Affects Children
Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Parrillo, Sage Publications, 1st edition, Accessed 29 Sep.
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Data and Trends The best sources of data about violence in school come from government agencies. Stratification of School Violence Evidence suggests that school and student characteristics structure a hierarchy of vulnerability to school violence. The Role of the School Schools are a mirror of their communities because they reflect many of the social mechanisms, cultural values, and behavioral patterns occurring in the world at large.
Media and School Violence In the past decade, the news media periodically focused on high-profile mass murders occurring in schools, such as the Virginia Tech massacre and the Columbine High School shootings in Colorado. Policies There have been varying policy responses implemented to reduce school violence. Further Readings Addington, Lynn A.
Ruddy ; Amanda K. Miller ; Jill F. DeVoe ; Kathryn A. Washington, DC: U. Bonilla, Denise M. School Violence.
New York: H. Snyder ; Katrina Baum. Elliott, Delbert S. Hamburg ; Kirk R. Williams , eds. A little adrenaline feels good once in a while, but a steady flow can throw a child's system off balance.
Highlighting violence in New Zealand
A study of 48 young children published in the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology found that kids who have seen violence between parents tend to have higher-than-average heart rates, a sign that their adrenaline is in overdrive. The study in Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics found that exposure to violence increases the risk of sleep problems in 6- and 7-year-olds. It also found that kids who were repeatedly exposed to violent acts were especially prone to headaches, which are also associated to stress.
Yet another study, published in the Journal of Pediatrics, found that witnessing various types of community violence -- ranging from beatings and chasings to drug deals, arrests, rapes, and shootings -- increased the risk of a wide range of health problems in low-income children, including asthma, colds, stomach problems, and attention deficit disorder. The results led researchers to a startling conclusion: Violence and the resulting stress may actually be the root cause of many of the health problems that plague poor neighborhoods.
Parents may not be able to completely isolate their children from a violent world, but they can help children adapt, adjust, and stay healthy. One simple step is to limit exposure to violent television and video games. Watching a murder on TV isn't nearly as traumatic as seeing one in the street, but seeing thousands of virtual killings over time may still warp a child's view of the world. According to a report by the American Psychological Association, such repeated "entertainment" can increase the chance that kids will grow up to be aggressive and even violent adults.
The National Institute of Mental Health offers several other tips for helping children cope with scenes of violence:. Of course, the best thing anyone can do for a child is limit the violence around him, especially in the home. Children need a refuge from the rest of the world, a place where they can feel safe.
The alternative is unacceptable: Fear will lead to stress, and stress will lead to emotional upheaval and physical illness. Eventually, children exposed to violence may become violent themselves, potentially creating a new generation of young witnesses. It's a cycle that has to be stopped -- for the sake of this generation and the next. Finkelhor, David, et al.
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October Skybo T. Witnessing violence: Biopsychosocial impact on children. Pediatric Nursing. Department of Veterans Affairs. Community violence. July Saltzman et al. The psychobiology of children exposed to marital violence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. Bailey BN et al. Somatic complaints in children and community violence exposure. Developmental and Behavior Pediatrics. Produced on high-quality acid free paper and sturdily bound, the encyclopedia should hold up for many years. It should be noted, in addition, that the encyclopedia is available from ABC-Clio in an electronic version.
Nonetheless, a number of current sources will serve as valuable companion volumes for any collection serving interested readers. William L. It is written from a criminal justice perspective and offers a number of preventive strategies and guidelines for handling criminal situations, suggestions for providing a safe school environment, and details of the school crime phenomenon.
Thomas, seeks to understand the foundations of school violence and offers methods for coping with a variety of violence issues. The book is written by two prominent psychiatrists specializing in bully prevention and research.
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